21 August 2008

A Brief Overview of the Celtic Tribes 750 B.C.-50 B.C.


...This post is intended to be a reference on The early Celts. I will be answering the following seven questions in short summary, hopefully this will help those who want a brief overview for papers etc...

1. Geographic Setting?
2. Government?
3. Religious Beliefs?
4. Written Works?
5. Arts and Sciences?
6. Occupations?
7. Inventions and Achievements?


1. Geographic Setting?

...The early Celts were quite spread out, the maps below show the extent of their wanderings. Scholars often divide the Celts into roughly four groups; the Gauls in France, Iberians in Spain and Portugal, Cisalpine Gauls in Italy, and Britons/Gaels in the British Isles.



2. Government?

...For the most part the Tribes were led by Kings/Chieftains, often elected for their physical prowess in earlier times. (The process was called the Consensus of the "Thing", a gathering of tribal leaders) There is some debate over the possibility of there having been primitive forms of Oligarchical Republic forms of government. Society was divided into three distinct groups; the Warrior Aristocracy, the Bards or Druids (Learned men who filled the roles of priests, judges and lore-keepers), and finally the common class.

...It is interesting that the Celts in there early forms of government can be compared to the Greeks. Each were ruled by smaller warring factions and alliances. They each had Tribal loyalties over National Patriotism. This made it easy for both to fall to Rome when she came along.


3. Religious Beliefs?

...The Celts were Polytheistic in the extreme. They had literally hundreds of gods and goddesses who were often associated with nature and special skills. Druids were the "Priests" who performed ritual sacrifices to ensure things like good harvests and success in war. The Celts probably had human sacrifices as well as cows, sheep and fruit of the fields. Often Druids traveled through different villages performing the duties of their office and bearing news. (A note to the side, aside from gods and goddesses the Celts had superstitions about fairies and brownies)



4. Written Works?

...Very little has survived from the Ancient Celts who were often referred to as the "hidden people". They had superstitions about writing their knowledge down, and preferred to pass it on by word of mouth. However as a side note, some claim that the art of Rhyme in poetry was invented by the Celts.



5. Arts and Sciences?

... The Celts were a very talented and industrious people. They invented the beautiful Celtic scroll work and knots which so many cultures admire today. They invented the La Tene art; special patterns for ornamentation featuring swirls and spirals. (Later on medieval monks used this to decorate manuscripts) Aside from this the Celts were skilled in metalwork and knew how to forge iron weapons.

6. Occupations?

...In Ancient Celtic times a man was often born into his profession. Sons usually followed the trade of their father. Some occupations might have been; Farming, Silver Smiths, Metal Work, Jewelers, and Hunting.

7. Inventions and Achievements?

...Aside from the previously mentioned metal work with iron and inventions in poetry, the Celts are attributed with creating chain mail and soap. They may also have had chariots before the Romans, some believe the Romans got the idea from the Celts.

3 comments:

Grace said...

Hello! Thank you for your comment on my blog!

About these verses:

1 John 5:10-13
"He who believes in the Son of God has the witness in himself; he who does not believe God has made Him a liar, because he has not believed the testimony that God has given of His Son. 11 And this is the testimony: that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. 12 He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life. 13 These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may continue to believe in the name of the Son of God."

About verse 10:
"He that believes not the Son"... By refusing to believe the testimonies given by the three divine persons, that Jesus was the Messias, and the true Son of God, by whom eternal life is obtained and promised to all that comply with his doctrine. In him we have also this lively confidence, that we shall obtain whatever we ask, according to his will, when we ask what is for our good, with perseverance, and in the manner we ought. And this we know, and have experience of, by having obtained the petitions that we have made.

I have the oldest scrolls known of the Bible, and here is what they say on 1 John 5:11-13
"
11 And this is the testimony, that God hath given to us eternal life. And this life is in his Son. 12 He that hath the Son, hath life. He that hath not the Son, hath not life. 13 These things I write to you, that you may know that you have eternal life, you who believe in the name of the Son of God."

About: "He that hath the Son, hath life..." Many people think it means that if you just have faith, that's all you need. That's wrong. They do not think of what it truly means, since this is old English. It means
'he who does all things in Him, works, prayers, sufferings, shall have life within him. You can have faith alone, yet not understand it unless you do good works with it.'


Galatians 2:20
"I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me."

Older scrolls: 20 And I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in me. And that I live now in the flesh: I live in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and delivered himself for me.

I believe they are basically the same.

This is Saint Paul saying to the Galatians about Faith. That Christ should live IN you. Meaning to have Christ in your every thought, word, deed. He has Faith.

Diego dy Carlos said...

Hello..

Good blogs!

I've seen your comment on blog "Far East Russia For Gods glory".

I'm a pastor from Brazil and I've prayed for Zhenya and Nika these last days.

Do you know them for a long time?

P.S.: Excuse my English.

Lauren said...

Hello Diego,

Thanks for the comment! I have not known Nika and her family for very long, but they are in my prayers.

Do not worry about your English, I can't even speak your language! So you are way ahead of me :)

In Christ,
Lauren Ashley